HYDRO POWER STATIONS

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GOGO POWER STATION, 2MW

Location

The station is situated in Rongo District, Kanyamkago West Location, Kajulu II Sub-location. It is about 45kms from Migori Town, near the Tanzanian border with Kenya, and is 480kms from Nairobi. 

Capacity and History

The Station rating is 1000kw per Unit and comprises two Kaplan Turbine type units. The station was commission in 1957 with the main reason being to supply power to the South Nyanza Mine at Macalder Mine from which the East African Power & Lighting, which later became  Kenya Power & Lighting Company, bought after 1970s. KenGen took over the station after it was formed in 1997.

Findings of a feasibility study carried in 2001/2002 by Nippon Koei indicate that the station has a maximum potential of up to 60MW peak operation.

225MW GITARU POWER STATION

Gitaru power station is the biggest station in terms of installed and effective capacity. The highest recorded combined output was on 22nd May 2002 when the output was 222MW and in November 2006 the unit recorded 220mw during one evening peak.

The number of units installed are three, producing a total capacity of 225 MW which is the biggest hydro in E. Africa. Number 1 was commissioned 1999 with a rated capacity of 81.5.MW. the second and third were installed in 1999 rating a capacity of 72.5MW.

 

90MW KAMBURU POWER STATION

Kamburu power station was the 2nd major power station in independent Kenya after Kindaruma power station. It was commissioned in 1974 and three installed vertical Francis turbines. The spillway has three radial gates and one flap gate.

The station comprises three units each with a capacity of 31. MW. Its reservoir capacity (F.S.L) is 123 million cubic metres.

Full feasibility studies were started in mid 1960’s and they confirmed the viability of an upper reservoir for the Seven Forks cascade hydropower complex with a potential of about eleven power plants namely Masinga, Kamburu, Gitaru, Kindaruma, Kiambere, Karura, Mutonga, Low Grand Falls, Usheni, Adamsons Falls, and Kora. The first five were developed between 1968 and 1988 while the remaining six are awaiting implementation.

The actual site of the Kamburu plant was selected at about 160km from Nairobi via Nairobi – Thika – Kangonde –Embu highway and about 50km from Embu town.
The cost of the plant was about USD 47 million (KShs. 344 million) and the project took seven years from feasibility studies to construction. The ground breaking for the construction work was done on 29th June 1971 and commissioning of the plant took place on 5th July 1974.

72MW KINDARUMA POWER STATION

Commissioned in 1968, Kindaruma was the first major power station in independent Kenya.It was originally designed with a provision of three turbine generator units. However, two vertical Kaplan turbines were installed. The third unit has been installed with a capacity of 24MW thereby increasing the station’s output to 72 MW and an upgrade of the first two units is currently underway. Power from Kindaruma is transmitted directly to Nairobi or to Kamburu via a 132KV substation. Kindaruma is a surface power station and visitors have the luxury of observing the flow of water out of the tailrace.

The spillway has three vertical gates and the dam is equipped with an emergency spillway in case of excessively high floods.

The station is situated 170 km north east of Nairobi.

168MW, KIAMBERE POWER STATION

Commissioned in 1968, Kindaruma was the first major power station in independent Kenya.

 It was originally designed with a provision of three turbine generator units.  However, two vertical Kaplan turbines were installed.

 Work is currently in progress to install the third unit, thereby increasing the station’s output from 40 MW to 72 MW by mid 2012.

 Power from Kindaruma is transmitted directly to Nairobi or to Kamburu via a 132KV substation.
Kindaruma is a surface power station and visitors have the luxury of observing the flow of water out of the tailrace.

The spillway has three vertical gates and the dam is equipped with an emergency spillway in case of excessively high floods.

The station is situated 170 km north east of Nairobi

40MW MASINGA POWER STATION

The scenic Masinga dam is the main reservoir in the cascade with a capacity of 1.56 cubic metres of water and is therefore used for water regulation throughout the year. Two vertical Kaplan turbines drive two generators capable of generating 40 MW of power.

The power generated at Masinga is transmitted to Kamburu and Mt. Kenya Region.

From Kamburu, power is transmitted to Nairobi through two 220kv lines.

The reservoir occupies a surface area of 120 sq. km.

The power station was conceived in 1960’s immediately after the commissioning of Kindaruma power station in 1968. By the time Kamburu power station was being commissioned in 1974, Tana River Development Authority TARDA, under finance provided by the United Kingdom Ministry of Overseas Development commissioned Watermeyer Legge Piesold & Uhlmann (WLPU) consultants to investigate a long term Tana basin development strategy within the content of alternative plans for public water supply, irrigation and hydropower.
Full feasibility studies were started in mid 1975 and they confirmed the viability of an upper reservoir for the Seven Forks cascade hydropower complex with a potential of about eleven power plants namely Masinga, Kamburu, Gitaru, Kindaruma, Kiambere, Karura, Mutonga, Low grand Falls, Usheni, Adamsons Falls, and Kora. The first five were developed between 1968 and 1988 while the remaining six are awaiting implementation.
The actual site of the Masinga plant was selected at about 150km from Nairobi via Nairobi - Thika - Kangonde -Embu highway and about 70km from Embu town.

 

MESCO POWER STATION, 0.43MW

This is the smallest power station in the system and is currently undergoing refurbishment the station is in Murang’a north district, located along river Maragua, four (4) kms. off Murang’a-Nairobi rd, twelve (12) kms from Murang’a town and eight (8) kms from Maragua town.

It has one (1) horizontal trancis, driving one (1) generator. The machines were commissioned in 1930's, with an installed capacity of 0.38mw. The station draws water, for generation from Maragua River.

NDULA POWER STATION, 2MW

The station is in Thika district, located along river Thika, approximately twenty seven (27) kms from Thika town, ten (10) kms from Yatta NYS camp and seven (7) kms off Thika-Matuu rd.

It has two (2) horizontal trancis turbines with twin runners each, driving two (2) generators. The machines were commissioned in 1924, with an installed capacity of 2.0mw. The station draws water, for generation Thika River.

SAGANA FALLS POWER STATION, 1.5MW

The station is in Nyeri district, located along river Sagana 10 kms from Nyeri town, 1.5 kms from Marua mkt centre/Kiganjo junction and five (5)kms from Nyeri-Karatina rd.

It has three (2) horizontal Francis turbines driving three (3) generators. The machines were commissioned in 1956, with an installed capacity of 1.5 mw. The station draws water, for generation from Sagana River.

60MW SONDU/MIRIU HYDROPOWER STATION

The Sondu/Miriu Hydropower station was developed by KenGen and has an installed capacity 60 MW.
Unlike other stations in Kenya, Sondu Miriu&. Situated near Kisumu in western Kenya - does not have a major dam and associated large reservoir but relies on the flow in the river with only a small storage capacity at the intake.
It was funded by the Japan Bank for International Cooperation, with KenGen meeting part of the cost.
Water is diverted from the Sondu River at the Intake through a 6.2 km long tunnel. A surface mounted penstock takes the water down the Nyakach escarpment to the Power Station below.
In the Powerhouse, harnessing the water and the head, the turbines are turned to generate the electricity.
The water is then returned to the Sondu river approximately 13km downstream of the intake via a 4.7km long outlet channel.

20MW TANA POWER STATION

Tana power station is in Murang’a south district, and is situated 83km from Nairobi on the Nairobi – Nyeri road.
As part of its capacity expansion to meet the rising power demand, KenGen has upgraded the station’s generation capacity from 14.4 installed in early 1930’s and 1950’s to the current 20 MW by constructing a new power station with a capacity of 20 MW.
The redevelopment contract was awarded in June 2007 to Farab Company of Iran to install four generator units and associated 11/ 66Kv Substation. Under the same contract a 66/33 Kv 23 MVA Transformer was installed in the 11/ 33 kv substation to boast supply to Mt. Kenya region.

106MW, TURKWEL POWER STATION

Turkwel Power Station is one of the major hydro-electric power stations in Kenya. It is situated in north-western Kenya, on the border of Turkana and West Pokot and Pokot North districts, approximately 550 km from Nairobi.

The station was conceived as a multi purpose project comprising hydro-power, agricultural, fisheries and tourism development. It was constructed under the control of KVDA from 1986 to 1991.
Turkwel Power Station has the capacity of 106MW.The power produced is connected to the national grid at Lessos sub-station on a 220KV transmission line over a distance of 230 kilometres.

It generates approx. 10% of the national electricity supply

WANJII POWER STATION, 7.4MW

The station is in Murang’a south district, situated one (1) km off the Murang’a-Nairobi rd, (80) kms from Nairobi, (10) kms from Maragua town and six kms from Murang’a town.

it has four (4) horizontal trancis turbines driving four (4) generators. The machines were commissioned between 1952 and 1954, with an installed capacity of 7.4 MW. The station draws water, for generation, from Mathioya and Maragua.

SOSIANI POWER STATION, 0.4MW

Sosiani Power station is located 25KM west of Eldoret Town on River Sosiani. The station was commissioned in 1955 and named after its White Settler owner 'Selby' Gilbert, Gilkes and Gordon Ltd. of England supplied the Two Units with a total installed capacity of 400KW. The units are Horizontal Pelton Wheel type. A small dam constructed on river Sosiani allows diversion of water to the plant via a headrace Channel, Head pond and Surface Steel Penstock. The total head to the Pelton Wheel Turbines is 135ft(41M).

The units generate at 2.75 KV via a main TX where it is stepped up to 11KV and transmitted to a KPLC substation at Rivatex where it joins the grid. The power is also stepped down from 11KV to 415V via a station TX that is on KPLC side for powerhouse use and the camp facility.

Kengen has automated the station over the times which includes replacement of a manually operated main inlet spear valve with a motorized one, installed Modern Control panels which ensured automatic Synchronization of the units and also Protection system for the units and also mounted some bearing temperature probes which have alarm and trip signals as in the past it was being detected by feel of hand. This greatly improved the station as it reduced the number of staff and also minimized rate of bearing failure hence making profits. The units are normally stable and achieve a plant availability factor of over 95% annually with a steady annual generation of over 2,800,000 KWH.

 

Sangoro Power Station, 21MW